In the early fourteenth century, four Franciscan friars set out for East Asia to preach the Gospel among the Mongols. In the city of Thana (modern Mumbai), however, they met their end after running afoul of the local administrators. We explore their story, a Latin Christian understanding of Asia, and more in this episode of Footnoting History.
E. Randolph Daniel, The Franciscan Concept of Mission in the High Middle Ages, University of Kentucky Press, (1975).
Benjamin Kedar, Crusade and Mission: European Approaches Towards the Muslims, Princeton University Press, (1984).
Christopher MacEvitt, The Martyrdom of the Franciscans: Islam the Papacy, and an Order in Conflict, University of Pennsylvania Press, (2020).
James D. Ryan, “Conversion or the Crown of Marytrdom: Conflicting Goals in for Fourteenth Century Missionaries in Central Asia?” In Medieval Cultures in Contact, edited by Richard Gyug, Fordham University Press, (2003): 19-38.
Music: "Evening Melodrama" by Kevin Macleod (www.incompetech.com)