B-, 3.85, 16/20, upper second--modern methods of gauging a student's performance in a class can vary widely from country to country. But most of these systems are shockingly recent developments, and for much of human history "grades" as such didn't exist. In this episode, we'll look at the history of American systems of educational evaluation from their emergence in the 18th century to their standardization in the 20th.
Jack Schneider and Ethan Hutt. "Making the grade: a history of the A–F marking scheme." Journal of Curriculum Studies 46, no. 2 (2014): 201-224.
J. A. Laska & T. Juarez, eds. Grading and Marking in American Schools: Two Centuries of Debate. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
David L. McArthur, "Educational Assessment: A Brief History," in David McArthur, ed. Alternative Approaches to the Assessment of Achievement (Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987).
Music: "Evening Melodrama" by Kevin Macleod (www.incompetech.com)
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